Evidence on rural youth

Despite rapid urbanization in many countries, around 46 per cent of the world's young people currently live in rural areas. Young women and men can be catalysts for economic growth and development in rural economies, but only if they have access to decent work. Some of the barriers they typically face include low incomes, hazardous and precarious working conditions, and limited or no access to social protection. Ensuring that rural youth have access to an abundance and variety of quality jobs is not just important for their personal wellbeing, but also key to reducing poverty and achieving global food security in the coming decades.



Edited Fri, Dec 1, 2017 10:59 AM

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A first atlas on rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa

Development of rural areas can shape the future of migration

A first atlas to deepen understanding on rural migration in sub-Saharan Africa
2 November, Rome - A first atlas to offer a better understanding of complex rural migration patterns in sub-Saharan Africa has been published today.

The atlas - Rural Africa in motion. Dynamics and drivers of migration south of the Sahara - also highlights the important role rural areas will continue to play in shaping the continent's migration for decades to come.

"Population growth translates into a massive expansion of the labour force. Some 380 million new working age people are expected to enter the job market by 2030. Of those about 220 million are likely to be in rural areas. The challenge is to generate enough employment to absorb this booming labour force. This is why agriculture and rural development must be an integral part of any response to large migratory movements to harness the potential of migration for development," said Kostas Stamoulis, FAO Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department.

Through a series of maps and in depth case studies, the 20 authors of the atlas, representing different research institutions, think tanks and international organizations from and outside Africa, explore the complexity of the interrelated causes that drive people in Africa to leave their homes. They shed light on regional migration dynamics and perspectives, and foster understanding of rural migration.

"The atlas is timely as the need for new analytical tools to improve our understanding of Africa's migration is becoming more and more pressing. In the face of climate change and unprecedented population growth, the atlas doesn't only provide a stimulating overview on rural migration, it can also help shape more coordinated and coherent actions to address migration," added Kostas Stamoulis.

The atlas is the result of a partnership between the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), with technical support from the Centre for the Study of Governance Innovation (GovInn) in South Africa.

"This atlas is an innovative contribution which will support the policy debate not only between governments and the international community, but also between and with local stakeholders," said Jean-Luc Khalfaoui, CIRAD's Director General for Research and Strategy.


The Future of Food: Shaping the Food System to Deliver Jobs

Main Messages:

• The food system employs the most people in many developing countries in both self and wage employment, and will continue to do so during the time period set to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, and thereafter. Self and wage employment in farming still generates a large share of rural incomes and can have large poverty-reducing effects.

• The food system extends beyond farm production to include activities along value chains, such as food processing, transportation, retailing, restaurants, and other services. In many countries, the off-farm aspect of the food system accounts for a large share of the economy's manufacturing and services sectors. While the employment share in farming tends to decline as per capita incomes rise, the share in food manufacturing and services tends to increase.

• Increasing the number and inclusiveness of jobs will require attention to food system growth, employment intensity, and inclusion of youth and women. Urbanization and per capita income growth offers significant new opportunities in non-cereal products and in new jobs in the food system beyond the farm. Inclusion of women and the growing number of youth into food system jobs can raise productivity and improve social harmony.

• Improving the quality of jobs in the food system requires attention to raising returns to labor, increasing stability in earnings, and improving working conditions.

• Priorities vary by country context. Different combinations of interventions will be needed in agriculture-dependent economies relative to transforming or urbanized economies; in lagging relative to leading regions; in land abundant relative to land scarce environments; whether "pull" or "push" factors are leading to movement of people out of farming in particular areas; and on the initial nature of skills deficits.


The food system employs the majority of people in developing countries in both self and wage employment, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
The food and agriculture sector extends beyond agricultural production to include storage, processing, distribution, transport, logistics, retailing and other services.
We can do more to strengthen the food system's contribution to jobs by supporting growth in food value chains, ensuring that policies and investments improve the quality and quantity of jobs, and facilitating the inclusion of more women and youth.
Over the next 15 years, about 1.6 billion people in low and middle income countries will reach working age. Creating jobs for a new generation of workers while sustaining and improving the quality of employment of the billions of people already working will be a significant challenge for all sectors.

The food system currently employs the majority of people in both self and wage employment in developing countries, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future. Jobs in the food system extend beyond agricultural production and account for a large share of the global economy's manufacturing and services sectors. As per capita incomes increase and eating patterns shift, the demand for jobs in these off-farm segments of the food system - including processing, distribution, transportation, storage, retailing, preparation and restaurants -- will increase.

A new paper from the World Bank focuses on how the food system can deliver jobs and provides a framework for understanding the factors that determine the number and quality of jobs in the sector. The paper also highlights a set of actions that countries can adopt, adapt, and apply to their own circumstances to strengthen the food system's contribution to employment.


Reducing rural women's domestic workload through labour-saving technologies and practices toolkit

One of the three strategic objectives of the IFAD Policy on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment is "to achieve a more equitable balance in workloads and in the sharing of economic and social benefits".

Rural women of all ages spend much of their day engaged in domestic chores, including collecting water and firewood, processing and preparing food, travelling and transporting, and caregiving.

These tasks are unpaid and restrict a woman's time and mobility. Moreover, the drudgery can cause poor health and nutrition for a woman's entire family, in particular infants and young children. These domestic chores are a major constraint to the ability of smallholder farmers to increase agricultural productivity and achieve food and nutrition security.

Labour-saving technologies and practices promote inclusive development by reducing the domestic workload and freeing up time to perform productive tasks, to participate in decision-making processes and development opportunities, and to enjoy more leisure time. They also make rural areas more attractive places for younger people to reside. When the domestic workload is reduced, women are the principal beneficiaries but men also benefit, depending on the extent to which they perform these tasks.

The Reducing rural women's domestic workload toolkit is composed as follows:

Teaser describes why labour-saving technologies and practices are needed to reduce women's domestic workload and the benefits to be gained, with examples from IFAD-supported projects.

How To Do note offers practical guidance to help practitioners address this issue in the design and implementation of projects. It also provides details on proven labour-saving technologies and practices and gives key information sources.

Lessons Learned provides lessons learned from a study on the impact that IFAD water investments had on the time saved by households in collecting water, with a gender lens. It also gives recommendations for IFAD project design and implementation to improve the outcomes of labour-saving water investments.

Compendium showcases labour-saving technologies that were exhibited at the Sharefair on technologies and innovations for rural women on "Improving Food Security, Nutrition and Productive Family Farming in Eastern and Southern Africa", held in Nairobi on 15-17 October 2014.



Edited Fri, Dec 1, 2017 11:11 AM

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